2015 State of Application Security: Closing the Gap

Although published in mid 2015, SANS “2015 State of Application Security: Closing the Gap” provides interesting insights into:

  • Application Security Standards in Use
  • Overlap Between Development and Security Focus
  • Popular Languages and Their Perceived Risks
  • Top Challenges for Builders and Defenders
  • Defenders’ Emphasis for Application Security Management Resources
  • Useful Security Practices for Application Defenders

https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/analyst/2015-state-application-security-closing-gap-35942

 

BSIMM in its 4th incarnation is here

The BSIMM4 came out on 09/17 and the BSIMM4 document is now available for download here.

BSIMM (pronounced “bee simm”) is short for Building Security In Maturity Model. The BSIMM is a study of real-world software security initiatives organized so that you can determine where you stand with your software security initiative and how to evolve your efforts over time.

Encoding notes around MvcHtmlString Class and <%: %>/@Model.<…> code syntax

The MvcHtmlString class:
Represents an HTML-encoded string that should not be encoded again. This class contains some interesting methods from security perspective like:

Create Creates an HTML-encoded string using the specified text value.
ToHtmlString Returns an HTML-encoded string that represents the current object.

The MvcHtmlString.Create method:
The Create method of the MvcHtmlString class in System.Web.Mvc namespace creates an HTML-encoded string using the specified text value in the parameter.

The method signature for the Create method is:

image

The <%: %> code syntax for the MVC ASPX engine:
<%: %> is a new syntax for HTML Encoding output in ASP.NET 4 and ASP.NET MVC 2. This syntax renders output like <%= %> blocks do, but at the same time, also automatically HTML encodes it before rendering.

Considering that ASP.NET 4 introduced a new IHtmlString interface (along with a concrete implementation: HtmlString) that a developer can implement on types to indicate that its value is already properly encoded for displaying as HTML, and that therefore the value should not be HTML-encoded again, a possibility of Double Encoding arises when <%:%> and instances of IHtmlString are used together.

To avoid this, <%: %> code-nugget syntax checks for the presence of the IHtmlString interface implementation and will not HTML encode the output of the code expression if its value implements this interface.

The @model.<…> syntax for the MVC Razor engine:
This syntax automatically encodes value that is represented by <…>. Only exceptions will be when <…> is of MvcHtmlString type.

Possible permutations:

<%: MvcHtmlString %> <%:%> will not encode the MvcHtmlSTring to avoid double encoding as this is assumed to be already encoded
<%: NormalString %> <%:%> will Html encode the NormalString before rendering the same.
@model. <somethingNonMvcHtmlString> This will be HTML encoded and rendered.
@model. <somethingMvcHtmlString> This will be not get HTML encoded as this is assumed to be already encoded somethingMvcHtmlString is already assumed to be encoded.

So why document these when these details are already available in MSDN/TechNet/web?
Because MvcHtmlString.Create method is not generating an HTML-encoded string as documented. And when these strings gets rendered within the <%:%> or @model.<…> syntax, they are not encoded and as a result a non-encoded string gets rendered into the browser.

 

Demo:
A small MVC 3 application is created just to check the workings of the Create method of MvcHtmlString class.
The application takes a user string and renders it into the browser. It provides us an option to render as a normal string or as a HtmlMvcString. The UI looks as below:

image

Once I click on Test, the content entered is rendered as below:

image

The view code that handles this rendering part is:

image The strUserString is a normal string object.
The data model to which this view is bound has the following code:

image

Now to check the encoding behaviour, we pass some script values and try to render it in the browser.
Behaviour for Normal String:

image

This text is encoded and rendered as below:

image

Now the same text is rendered as an MvcHtmlString type:

image

The output looks as below:

image

The MvcHtmlString.Create method did not encode the string as documented. This needs to be taken care of during code reviews particularly when values of type MvcHtmlString is rendered within the <%: %> code nugget expressions or in @Model.<…> in ASP.NET 4 and ASP.NET MVC 2 onwards.
<%: %> and @Model.<…> will NOT automatically encode an object of type MvcHtmlString.

Some points to keep in mind when reviewing ASP.NET 4 and ASP.NET MVC onwards:
1. Check for <%: %> and MvcHtmlString usage.
2. Check for @Model.XXXX and MvcHtmlString usage
3. If found, check the type of value that is being rendered between the <%: %> code nugget expressions. Same for @Model.XXXX
4. If the type is normal string, <%: %>/@Model.XXXX will HTML encode the value. But if the type is MvcHtmlString then the value rendered within <%: %> will not be encoded. So if you see <%: %> in code do not assume that every value within it is encoded by default.

References:
1. http://weblogs.asp.net/scottgu/archive/2010/04/06/new-lt-gt-syntax-for-html-encoding-output-in-asp-net-4-and-asp-net-mvc-2.aspx
2. http://stevesmithblog.com/blog/default-encoding-of-strings-in-asp-net-mvc-2/

The latest Cyber Risk Report from HP DVLabs

The latest Cyber Risk Report from HP DVLabs –

Good findings that analyzes:

  • The number of Web application vulnerabilities that are reported differs significantly from the number that actually exist.

  • Web application attacks are on the rise, despite the lack of new vulnerabilities being disclosed.

  • Web application vulnerabilities are easy to exploit with a variety of attack techniques and tools.

Secure File upload best practices

Secure file uploads are critical to applications that support this feature.

It is important that the files adhere to the best practices of secure file upload listed below:

  1. DO NOT RELY on client side validation. Whatever you do on the client side ALL the following checks MUST be implemented on the server side.
  2. Check for the SIZE OF THE FILE UPLOADED – absolutely critical must do. If you need very large files to be uploaded go back to the white board and see what alternatives can be explored. Generally any file upload should not be more than 4 MB.
  3. Ensure that only a set of known good file extensions/types are allowed to be uploaded– USE A WHITELIST of allowed extensions. DO NOT use a list of bad extensions to be avoided – NO BLACKLIST`ing.
  4. Generate the file names; DO NOT USE/AVOID files names that are provided by the end user.
  5. Upload the file to a location decided by the application WITHOUT any end user influence. DO NOT let the user have a say in where the file is uploaded.
  6. Upload in a location that is a NON SYSTEM drive.
  7. AVOID uploading the file to the WEB ROOT.
  8. ALWAYS DO a Virus scan on the uploaded files.
  9. Run a MIME check on the allowed MIME types. Note this can be manipulated by any user and by no means should be the only mechanism to secure a file upload. <<Adding some more to the original list>>
  10. Check “Magic Numbers” rather than just checking the file extensions. Check what a Magic Number is here.
  11. Pay attention to the decompression of compressed files.
  12. Ensure that the file upload is Audited.
  13. Refrain from overwriting of a uploaded file.
  14. Do not allow execute permissions on folder where the file is uploaded.

The validateFileToUpload class implements the three checks below using ASP.Net:

  • CHECK #1   Check for the file size
  • CHECK #2   Check for the file extension and map it to a white list of allowed extensions
  • CHECK #3   MIME Type Validation
public void validateFileToUpload(FileUpload objFile)
{
int MAX_FILE_SIZE = (4 * 1024 * 1024); //5 MB file size limit
//————————————————————
//CHECK #1
//You can set the httpRunTime maxRequestLength to the required
//file size in the web.config file too
//————————————————————
int fileSize = objFile.PostedFile.ContentLength;
if (fileSize > MAX_FILE_SIZE)
{
returnMessage = “File size exceeds the safe file size limit.  Reduce the file size.”;
return returnMessage;
}
//—————————————
//CHECK #2
//Check with a white list of extension
//—————————————
string chosenFileExtension = System.IO.Path.GetExtension(objFile.FileName);
string[] allowedExtensions = { “.doc”, “.xls”, “.ppt”, “.pptx”, “.txt” };
if (!allowedExtensions.Contains(chosenFileExtension))
{
returnMessage = “Upload Failed: Files with ” + chosenFileExtension + ” extensions are not allowed.”;
return returnMessage;
}
//—————————————
//CHECK #3
//Check with a white list of MIME types
//—————————————
string[] allowedMimeTypes = { “text/plain”, “text/xml” };
string chosenFileMiMeType = objFile.PostedFile.ContentType;
if (!allowedMimeTypes.Contains(chosenFileMiMeType))
{
returnMessage = “Upload Failed: Files with ” + chosenFileMiMeType + ” MIME types are not allowed.”;
return returnMessage;
}
There are some additional checks that needs to be kept in mind in addition to the 9 checks listed above like double extension files, filename checks for files coming from different operating systems (#4 kind of handles this though).Learnt to keep these checks in mind in a VERY HARD way today :’((

Access control–Basic Must Knows

 

In general information security interviews around Access control, the candidates needs to understand the following:

o    Understand the Access control techniques
o    Understand Access control administration
o    Understand Access control models
o    Understand Identification and Authentication techniques
o    Understand Access control methodologies
o    Methods of Attacks on the Authentication systems
o    Intrusion Detection.

Some typical questions that are asked around Access Control Techniques are listed below:

1)    What do you mean by Access control techniques?
Access control techniques define the ways to implement access control mechanisms.
2)    What are the types of Access control techniques?
Various types of Access control techniques are used based on the environment where the access control mechanism is implemented. These include:
I.    Discretionary Access Control – DAC
II.    Mandatory Access Control – MAC
III.    Lattice Based Access Control – LBAC
IV.    Role based Access Control – RBAC
V.    Rule based Access Control – RBAC

3)    What is Discretionary Access Control – DAC?
In DAC the access to a resource, say a file is controlled by the owner of that file. In other words if there are no owner for a resource that resource is accessible any one. The owner of the file, at his discretion, grants/denies access to the resource he/she owns.
DAC has a number of inherent risks mainly because there is no centralized administration. Considering that each file owner controls the access to the file that they own and that not all owners are equally security aware, this model often leads to inconsistencies in the implementation of DAC.

4)    What is Mandatory Access Control – MAC?
Mandatory Access control is not discretionary or optional. In this method of implementing Access control, all resources are provided with a security label. Access to that label of information is based on the requestor having the clearance (same security label) to view the resource. This model is also called multilevel access control because it classifies resources into various levels and access to those resources requires that the caller has the permissions levels to view/access the resource.
MAC is usually used in scenarios that require high level of security like for example defense related information, etc.

5)    What is Lattice based Access control – LBAC?
This model is used in multiuser environments with multiple security requirements. For example it is used in database access. Lattice is a mathematical structure that holds the answers to the following questions:
I.    Given two objects having different security classifications what is the minimum security label that a user must have to access both the resource.
II.    Given there are two users, what is the maximum security label possible on the object such that both the users can access the resource.

6)    What is Rule Bases Access Control – RBAC?
The Rule Based Access Control technique is so implemented that any resource request is intercepted by the system and then compared against a set of rules set against that resource before the request is granted if the rules are satisfied. ACLs are example of Rules based Access control implementation.

7)    What is Role Based Access Control – RBAC?
The Role Based Access control can be regarded as an alternative to the DAC and MAC. In this technique, the access control implementation is done based on the structure of the organization. In this technique each user is assigned a role in the system and each role is in turn assigned a set of rights/privileges. If the role to which and user belongs then they have access or else access is denied to the resource.

8)    What are the main Account control administration activities?
•    Account Administration:
This is a straight forward process wherein the user accounts are created as and when needed with adequate approvals and removed as soon as the accounts are no longer needed.
•    Account, Log and journal monitoring:
Account access, particularly the super users and administration, accounts should be logged and monitored. Monitoring helps identify and investigate suspicious activities.

9)    How do you determine system level monitoring?
This can be done in three ways:
•    File and data owners
•    Through principle of least privilege
•    Through segregation of duties and responsibilities.

10)    How do you enforce Authorization at the file and data level?
Each resource should be assigned an owner who is responsible for maintaining and administering the resource’s rights and permissions. Without owners and custodians, data and objects are not controlled. With ownership, responsibility is defined and users know whom to contact with problems and/or questions.

11)    What are the various access control models?
Various access control models are:
•    Bell-LaPadulla model
•    Biba model
•    Clark-Wilson model
•    Non-Interference model

12)    What are the main Authentication techniques?
Main Authentication techniques include:
•    Knowledge based authentication. Example Password/Passphrase
•    Characteristics based authentication. Example biometrics/finger prints
•    Tokens. Example RSA SecureID   
•    Tickets. Example Kerberos.

13)    What are the various Access control methodologies and Implementations?
All access control methodologies can be classified into following two categories:
•    Centralized Access controls
•    Decentralized Access controls

14)    What is Centralized access control methodology?
In general centralized access control means that a company maintains the user accounts, rights and permissions at one centralized location. There are two main ways using which it can be done:
•    RADIUS:
Remote Authentication Dial-In User is a client server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server for authenticating dial in users and authorize access to the required resource. RADIUS maintains the user profiles in a centralized database that all remote servers can share. It provides better security, allowing a company to set up policies that can be administered at a single network point.
•    TACACS:
Terminal controller Access Control System is an older protocol usually used in UNIX that allows a remote access server to forward a user’s logon password to an authentication server to determine whether access can be allowed to a given system. TACACS is an unencrypted protocol. TACACS has been replaced by TACACS+ that is built on TCP.

15)    What is Decentralized Access control methodology?
With decentralized access control methodology user account information, permissions, rights are stored in different computers across the network. Windows NT uses this approach for access control.
•    Domains:
Domains are large central units of management for Windows NT networks. A domain is collection of computer and user accounts managed by a central authority. Domains help break large network into smaller groups of resources that are easier to manage. Domains are administrative as well as security entities. When the users log into an account they log into a domain, and have access to the resources in that domain, if they have permissions. An account can have access to multiple domains.
•    Trust:
Users in one domain cannot access the resources in another domain unless the administrators of that domain have trust relationships established between the two domains. A trusting domain allows enables another domain (the trusted domain) to access its resources.

16)    What are the general attack types on Access control systems?
•    Denial of Service
•    Spoofing
•    Man in the Middle
•    Brute force
•    Dictionary
•    Spamming

Yahoo! paranoids note…this is kind of silly!

 

In security world it is regarded as a good practice to disclose as less information as possible to the end user as is just enough to get the work done.

A typical example is the case when the user provides invalid logon credentials. Applications ideally should let the user know that the credentials provided are not  correct w/o getting into the details of which one (User name or the password) actually is not as required. The message should be such that a malicious user should not be able to deduce which of the two are correct  or incorrect– as it simply reduces the attacker’s work to half; he needs to figure out only one component as the application itself somehow tells me which component is correct.

Here is what Yahoo! does when I provide an invalid user id.  What I did here is a unintentional typo in the user name. I as an end user now know for sure that the id I am trying to play with is incorrect.

image

Below is the message that is shown when I type the correct user name but incorrect password:

image

I am sure now that the id is correct and the only thing I need to figure out is the password (and go out doing some Social engineering stuff??)

The ones with a security hat on can deduce permutations to figure out stuff.

While I understand that this is NOT something that affects anyone drastically, but when it comes to setting examples of proper security measures for the end users, it advisable to be thorough, at least with such vanilla stuff. As they say SECURITY IS AS STRONG AS THE WEAKEST LINK.

Short Notes on Public Key Infrastructure–Part 1

The focal point of a PKI setup is the Certificate Authority, CA. The CA works as the Management hub for the digital certificates.

Considering that load on the CAs, some setup use an additional server called the Registration Authority (RA). The RA takes off some of the load from the CA by handling the verification of the data submitted to CA before the issue of the digital certificates. The RA acts as an interface between the user and the CA. The RA is generally found in the hierarchical model where the work load of the CA may need to be offloaded.

One of the main requirements of PKI is to be able to store public keys and certificates at a location that can be accessed by public. The public and the private key is created at the same time using the same predefined algorithm.

A digital certificate is a collection of predefined information related to the a component of the PKI setup, called the Public Key. The digital certificates use the X.509 standards. The X.509 standards allows the association between the users Distinguished name and the public key. The Distinguished Name is provided by the Naming authority and is used as a unique number while creating the certificate. A X.509 certificate generally contains the following:

  1. Serial Number:
  2. Subject: Name of the organization or the person identified.
  3. Signature Algorithm
  4. Issuer:
  5. Valid From:
  6. Valid To:
  7. Public Key
  8. Thumbprint Algorithm
  9. Thumbprint

Certificate Policy is the set if rules that indicate how exactly the certificate may be used. The CP is a plain text document that is assigned a unique object id so that anyone can reference it. A certificate can be used under multiple policies. For example, a digital certificate can be sued for:

  1. Access control
  2. Setting up of trusted connection
  3. System sign on
  4. Digitally sign documents.

Certificate Practice Statements explain how to implement the Certificate Policy. It describes how the CA plans to manage the certs it issues. All CAs should have CPS.

Digital certificates are revoked when the information they contain are no longer valid or trusted. The most common reason for the revocation of the digital certificates is the compromise of the private key. Note that certificate Revocation is different from Certificate expiration. A certificate can be revoked by the CA by confirming with the certificate owner or the PKI administrator.

Certificate Revocation List: X.509 standards require that a CRL gets published. CRLs contain the revocation status of =certificates that the CA manage. CRLs can be:

  1. Simple CRL
  2. Delta CRL

OCSP- Online Certificate Status Protocol: Returns the following details about a certificate queried:

  1. The cert status (good/revoked/unknown)
  2. The last update on the cert status
  3. The next time the status will be updated.
  4. The time when the response is sent.

….